The liver is the most frequent localization of hydatid cysts. Most hydatid liver cysts caused by the parasite E. granulosus are multiple and localized in the right lobe.
The infection is transmitted to the definitive host when the hydatid cyst is eaten. As one might suspect, this species of parasite is more common in areas of the world where dogs are used to herd sheep. Under most circumstances humans are a “dead end” in the life cycle, but hydatid disease in humans remains a serious problem because the disease can cause such serious pathology.
The hydatid liver cyst can can rupture spontaneously into the bile duct system, expelling the contents of the cyst into the bile ducts, and causing obstructive jaundice. They can also rupture into the free peritoneal space following trauma or even a small blow to the abdomen. Large cysts, situated close to the liver hilum can compress the main bile ducts and the vessels, causing obstructive jaundice or lobar atrophy or portal hypertension. The infiltrative process can involve large portions of the liver and cause stenosis of intrahepatic bile ducts and hepatic and portal veins.
Your doctor may use one or more of the following diagnostics
The treatment of hydatid cyst involves surgical enucleation of the cyst and peri-operative medical treatment with albendazole.
Newer modality of diagnosis and treatment is percutaneous drainage of the hepatic hydatid cyst under CT/USG guidance