Splenomegaly

Surgical Conditions

Spleen enlargement; Enlarged spleen

Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen beyond its normal size. Hepatosplenomegaly is enlargement of both the liver and the spleen.

The spleen is an organ involved in the production and maintenance of red blood cells, the production of certain circulating white blood cells, and is a part of the lymph system and the immune system. It also has a phagocytic role and acts as a filter for circulating microorganisms, old and deformed red cells, and other antigens.

Because of its wide variety of functions, the spleen may be affected by many conditions involving the blood or lymph system, and by infection, malignancies, liver disease and parasites.

Causes

The liver is involved in a multitude of bodily functions, and is affected by a variety of conditions, many of which result in hepatomegaly.

Infection

  • Viral- EBV. CMV, Parvovirus 19, HIV
  • Bacterial- Typhoid fever, SBE, Septicemia, Cat Scratch, TB
  • Protozoal- Malaria
  • Fungal- Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodmycosis

Haematological Disorders

  • Haemolytic disorders- autoimmune, red cell membrane defects including spherocytosis, elliptocytosis. G6PD, pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • Haemoglobinopathies- Sickle cell syndromes, thalessemia syndromes
  • Extramedullary haematopoiesis- Thalassemia and osteopetrosis

Splenic Infiltration

  • Gaucher’s and Niemann-Pick
  • Leukemic infiltration,
  • Hodgkin’s disease

Lupus, JRA, Sarcoidosis

Trauma

Splenic cysts, hemangiomas

Disorders of Splenic blood flow -

  • Cavernous transformation of the portal vein
  • Hepatic cirrhosis
  • Portal and/or splenic vein thrombosis
  • International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • Australia and New Zealand Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Association
  • Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
  • OSSANZ - Obesity Surgery Society of Australia & New Zealand
  • Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group
  • International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • Australia and New Zealand Hepatic, Pancreatic and Biliary Association
  • Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
  • Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group